Glossary of Terms

Roller Skating Terminology

    A

  • A

    In figure skating this denotes a right foot start.

  • 'A' Position

    A closed face-to-face relationship of partners where one partner progresses in a forward direction and the other partner progresses in a backward direction.

    The forward skating partner tracks the backward skating partner with hips in line and with compatible planning of head and shoulders.

    Transitional steps such as occur during face-to-face turns where both partners briefly progress in the same direction are not deviations from this position.

    When it is specified that a step be executed out of track while in a position it is referred to as Modified A position.

  • Accent

    The emphasized beats in dance music.

  • Adagio

    A form of pairs team skating incorporating acrobatics, carries, pivots and other specialized movements not acceptable in competitive pairs skating.

  • Advanced Movement

    Any movement involving a one-foot turn.

  • Aim

    When the employed skate takes the floor on an arc or flat divergent to the arc or flat being skated (Dancers, see remarks on lobe aim.)

  • “And” Position

    A position used in the preparation for a progressive stroke during which the free foot is placed alongside the skating foot.

  • Angular

    (Aim) The skate to be employed taking the floor
    on an arc or flat divergent to the arc or flat being skated.

    A severely out-of-position broken line of the body.

  • Apex

    (Free Skating) The highest or uppermost point of a
    jump.

    (Figures) The peak of the arc being skated, always occurring
    on the long axis.

  • Arabesque

    A movement in which the body is arched
    strongly in a continuous line from head through free foot
    while rolling on any edge or flat.

    Commonly called a “spiral.”

  • Arc

    The curve or portion of the circumference of a circle.

  • Arch

    A position of the body in which the spine is tensed
    backward.

  • Artistic Impression

    In competition, a score given by
    judges for the manner in which a routine is performed
    considering its sureness, carriage, rhythm, and timing of
    steps and items to the music.

  • Axel

    A 1 1/2 Turn Jump performed from a LOF take-off,
    counterclockwise rotation, to a ROB landing (no toe-stop
    assist on take-off or landing).

    Can also be done from a ROF
    take-off, clockwise rotation, to a LOB landing.

    a. Single Axel - 1 1/2 turns in the air

    b. Double Axel - 2 1/2 turns in the air

    c. Triple Axel - 3 1/2 turns in the air

  • Axis

    (Dance) The angle created by the intersection of a
    lobe and the dance baseline. The baseline of rotation for
    turns.

    (Free Skating) An imaginary straight line about which a body
    rotates or revolves. The baseline of rotation for a spin or
    jump.

    (Figure Skating plural axes)
    Imaginary lines of symmetry.

    a. Long Axis - An imaginary straight longitudinal line,
    which passes through the centers of the two or three
    figure circles.

    b. Short Axis - Imaginary straight lines which vertically
    cross the long axis at the points of tangency of the
    circle. Sometimes called the transverse axis.

  • B

  • 'B'

    In figure skating this denotes a left foot start.

  • 'B' Position

    An open side-by-side relationship of partners
    wherein both progress in the same direction, either forward
    or backward, while remaining square to their tracings.

    B Position is distinguished from Crossed Hands Position and D
    Position by the manner in which partner’s hands are held.

    a. Standard - The man skates on the left side of the team.
    The man’s right arm is extended across the woman’s back,
    partners clasping right hands at or near the woman’s right
    hip. The woman’s left arm is
    extended across man’s chest,
    partners clasping left hands in a location between the man’s
    waistline and shoulder line.

    b. Reverse - The man skates on the right side of the team.
    The man’s left arm is extended across the woman’s back,
    partners clasping left hands at or near the woman’s left hip.
    The woman’s right arm is extended across the man’s chest,
    partners clasping right hands in a location between the man’s
    waistline and shoulder line.

  • Backward (B)

    The tracing foot moving in the direction of
    its heel. Short version: back.

  • Background Music

    A musical rendition played for a free
    skating/pairs program in which the skating is not related to
    the music.

  • Barrier

    The outside wall, railing, or traffic line forming the
    boundaries of the skating surface.

  • Baseline

    A real or imaginary reference line.

    a. Posture - An imaginary line from the center of the skating
    foot through the hip and shoulder lines.

    b. Team - An imaginary line forming the axis around which
    the members of a team rotate.

    c. Dance - The imaginary line on the skating surface around
    which the steps of a dance are patterned, and which
    separates center and barrier lobes. The pattern line of a
    dance.

  • Beat

    A musical term; a regular throb or pulse of the
    music.

    a. Strong beat - A beat with heavy accent, often called the
    “down beat.

    b. Weak Beat - A beat with light accent.

    c. Off Beat - A beat without accent.

  • Boeckay

    A 1 1/2 Turn Jump performed from a RIF takeoff,
    counterclockwise rotation, to a LIB landing (no toe-stop
    assist on take-off or landing). Can also be done from a LIF
    take-off, clockwise rotation, to a RIB landing.

    a. Single Boeckay - 1 1/2 turns in the air

    b. Double Boeckay - 2 1/2 turns in the air

    c. Triple Boeckay - 3 1/2 turns in the air

  • Boeckl

    A 1 1/2 Turn Jump performed from a RIF take-off,
    counterclockwise rotation, to a ROB landing (no toe-stop
    assist on take-off or landing). Can also be done from a LIF
    take-off, clockwise rotation, to a LOB landing.

    a. Single Boeckl - 1 1/2 turns in the air

    b. Double Boeckl - 2 1/2 turns in the air

    c. Triple Boeckl - 3 1/2 turns in the air

  • Border Dance

    A dance whose steps have no required
    location on the skating surface. A dance skated so that the
    movement of the team changes the location of the steps on
    the surface.

  • Bracket (Br)

    A one-foot turn involving a change of edge
    with the rotation counter to the direction of the initial edge.

  • Bridge

    The arc between double threes.

  • Broken Ankle

    A pivot spin variation in which the ankle is
    disjointed to the side of the skate and spun on the edge of
    the front and back wheels on the same side of the skate
    (only two wheels are in contact with the skating surface).

    The most common Broken Ankle spins are the IB Broken
    Ankle Camel (inside front and back wheels) and the OB
    Broken Ankle Camel (outside front and back wheels).

  • Bunny Hop

    A jump, without rotation, from a LF to a LF
    with a right (r) toe-plant landing. Or can be done from a RF
    to a RF with a left (l) toe-plant landing.

    No edges required, but may be done on edges. The free leg swings forward on
    take-off. On landing, the toe-stop of the free foot takes the
    surface slightly ahead or alongside of the landing foot.

    a. Toe Bunny Hop - Starting on a RF with the left leg
    extended in front, the left toe-stop hits the skating surface
    while the right foot simutaneously slides forward. The jump
    is off the left toe-stop with the right leg extended forward in
    the air. The landing is on the right toe-stop pushing onto a
    LF. No edges required, but may be done on edges. Can also
    be done vice versa.

    b. Double Bunny Hop - Starting on a LF with the free leg
    extended in back, the right leg swings forward while jumping
    at the same time. The left leg scissors forward in the air. The
    landing is on the left toe-stop pushing onto a RF. No edges
    required, but may be done on edges. Can also be done vice
    versa.

    c. Back Bunny Hop - Same as the Bunny Hop except the
    movement is backward. The free leg swings backward on the
    take-off, the toe-stop of the free foot takes the surface
    slightly behind or alongside of the landing foot.

    d. Back Toe Bunny Hop - Same as the Toe Bunny Hop
    except the movement is backward. Starting on a RB with the
    left leg extended in back, the left toe-stop hits the skating
    surface while the right foot simultaneously slides backward.
    The jump is off the left toe-stop with the right leg extended
    backward in the air. The landing is on the right toe-stop
    pushing onto a LB. No edges required, but may be done on
    edges. Can also be done vice versa.

  • C

  • 'C' Position

    A tandem relationship of partners (one behind
    the other) wherein both progress in the same direction
    either forward or backward with the man directly behind
    the woman. The trailing skater tracks the leading skater with
    hips in line and with compatible planing of head and
    shoulders.

  • Carriage

    The manner in which the body is held while
    skating.

  • Center

    1. The point around which a circle is described.

    2. A point around which the body revolves, pivots, rotates,
    or turns.

    3. The centerline of a rink, either real or imaginary.

  • Center Lobe

    Any lobe belonging on the center side of a
    dance baseline.

  • Centered Spin

    Series of continuous revolutions around a
    stationary axis, which passes through a portion of the body.

  • Championship

    An official USARS sanctioned competition
    from which participants qualify to the next higher
    championship leading to the national and world
    competitions.

  • Change-Foot Spin

    A spin that involves a change of feet.

  • Change of Edge (C-E)

    A change of curve from outside
    to inside, or vice versa, on one foot without a change of
    direction of the skate.

  • Chasse’

    A step that does not pass the old tracing foot.

    A step, the completion of which does not involve or permit a
    trailing position of the foot, which is to become unemployed.

    The purpose of the chasse is to offset the forward motion of
    the body created by progressive runs. Thus the body is held
    erect with no forward or backward motion during the
    chasse.

  • Crossed

    a. Chasse in which the free foot is placed on
    the floor crossed behind the engaged skate when
    skating forward and crossed in front when skating
    backward.

    The skate leaving the floor should not be
    lifted over the skating foot, but passed closely around
    the toe (or heel when backward) to the “and “ position.

    b. Dropped (Cut Step) - A Chasse’ during the execution
    of which the new free foot is moved against or into the
    line of travel.

    c. Swing Dropped - A dropped Chasse’ where the free
    foot moves (past the employed foot) to the leading position
    before becoming the employed foot at the `AND’ position.

    d. In Line - A Chasse’ for the execution of which the new
    tracing foot takes the surface in line with the old.

    e. Raised - A movement in which the free foot, during the
    period of becoming the skating foot, doe not pass the
    original skating foot but is placed on the floor beside the
    skating foot with the new free foot remaining alongside the
    new skating foot, In most cases Chasse’ are not more than
    one beat in length.

  • Cheated

    A content item performed incorrectly while
    having the false appearance of correctness.

  • Checking

    The intentional halting or decreasing of
    rotational momentum during a jump or spin. Also called
    Checking Out.

  • Choctaw

    A two-foot turn from a forward edge to the
    opposite backward edge or vice versa.

    a. Closed - (American Dance) A Choctaw with the free leg
    in front of the body after the turn. In this type of turn, the
    free foot upon becoming employed progresses past the
    tracing foot. This type of turn is referred to as a progressive
    type turn.

    (International Dance) A Choctaw in which the free foot is
    placed on the floor along the outer edge side of the skating
    foot at the heel. Following the weight transference, the
    position of the new free foot is in front of the toe of the
    skating foot. The final closed hip position gives this Choctaw
    its name.

    b. Open - A Choctaw with the free leg in front of the body
    after the turn. In the forward-to-back variety, the turn is
    executed heel to heel with the new free foot moving into
    the line of travel as the old free foot takes the floor. In the
    back-to-forward variety, the turn is executed from behind
    the heel, with the free leg trailing after the turn. This type of
    turn is referred to as a chasse’-type turn.

    c. Dropped - A Choctaw, either open or closed, where the
    second or turn edge is not held longer than one beat.

    d.Held - A Choctaw, either open or closed, the second, or
    turn edge, of which is held longer than one beat of music.

    e. Swing Choctaw - A Choctaw in which the free foot is
    swung forward passed the skating foot and is brought back
    close behind the skating foot before stepping down. It may
    be either an open or closed Choctaw depending on where
    the new skating foot takes the floor and the position (open
    or closed) of the new free hip.

  • Choctaw Jump

    A Two Foot, Half Turn Jump from a
    forward edge to the opposite backward edge, or vice versa.
    Can be performed with either counterclockwise or
    clockwise rotation in the air.

  • Choreography

    The composition and arrangement of
    jumps, spins, and footwork on the skating surface
    accompanied by a particular piece or pieces of music which
    evokes the character of the movements.

  • Chugging

    A tracing error in which the body weight shifts
    from the front to the back of the skate, or vice versa,
    thereby impeding purity of roll.

  • Clean

    A content item performed correctly according to
    its official description.

  • Clockwise

    Rotation in the direction which the hands of a
    clock rotate.

  • Closed

    a. A position of the free leg in front of the body.

    b. Hip rotation of the free leg inward.

    c. (Dance) A face-to-face position of partners.

    d. (Competition) Requiring prior qualification.

  • Closed Scoring

    A method of scoring in which the judges’
    grades are tabulated by the scoring officials without prior
    public display or announcement of grades or placement
    ordinals.

  • Closed Competition

    A competition requiring prior
    qualification.

  • Colledge

    A 1 1/2 Turn Jump performed from a LOF takeoff,
    counterclockwise rotation, to a LIB landing (no toe-stop
    assist on take-off or landing). Can also be done from a ROF
    take-off, clockwise rotation, to a RIB landing. Also called a
    Colledge Axel.

    a. Single Colledge - 1 1/2 turns in the air

    b. Double Colledge - 2 1/2 turns in the air

    c. Triple Colledge - 3 1/2 turns in the air

  • Combination

    A sequence of connected items performed
    in succession without interruption.

  • Complete

    Executed successfully. Possessing all necessary
    parts, items, components, or elements. Not lacking anything
    necessary. Finished.

  • Composition

    The order or arrangement of items in a
    free skating/pairs program in proper proportion or relation
    to the whole skating surface.

  • Competition

    A USARS sanctioned contest among
    skaters.

  • Connecting Movements

    Footwork which links together
    content items in a free skating/pairs program.

  • Contact Skating

    In pairs, movements executed while
    partners remain in contact with each other.

  • Content of Program

    The actual items or ingredients
    performed by a skater in a free skating/pairs program. See
    Technical Merit.

  • Contest

    Skaters performing before judges for placement
    in order of skill. A competition in which each contestant
    performs without direct contact with or interference from
    competitors.

  • Contestant

    Any skater who participates in one or more
    events of a contest.

  • Contestant Team

    Any two skaters who participate in
    one or more events of a contest as a unit, as required by the
    specific rules for the given contest.

  • Continuous Baseline

    A real or imaginary line, which is
    continuous around the skating surface, in relation to which
    the correct lobes (and/or flats) of a Border Dance are
    placed.

    In patterns with straight-aways, this portion of the
    continuous baseline would have two straight longitudinal
    references parallel to each other, which are connected at
    the ends with semi-circular type reference.

  • Cork Screw

    An IB Sit to IB Camel Combination Spin.
    Usually proceeded by another Camel.

  • Corner

    The area of a skating surface permitting the
    shortest linear dimension parallel to the barrier, or at right
    angles to the straightaway.

    The area of a skating surface of
    least length.

    That part of a dance that is to be skated only in
    the area of a skating surface of least length. That part of a
    dance specifically designed to connect one straightaway with
    the other.

  • Corner Steps

    Steps of a dance, which are to be skated
    only on the corners of the rink.

  • Count

    a. Music - The numerical reference to the beats of each
    measure of music.

    b. Skating - The numerical reference to the beats of a step
    which may or may not agree with the musician’s count.

  • Counter (Co)

    A one-foot turn without a change of edge
    with the rotation counter to the direction of the initial edge.

  • Counterclockwise

    Rotation in the opposite direction
    which the hands of a clock rotate.

  • Credit

    An acknowledgement that something is done well.
    Usually reflected in a higher score given by a judge.

  • Cross Cut

    Term used for a forward Cross Over or a
    backward Cross Pull.

  • Cross Over

    A means of gaining momentum skating
    forward by crossing the free foot (striking foot) in front of
    the employed foot (thrusting foot) while bending the striking
    knee and straightening the thrusting knee. Also called
    Stroking.

  • Cross Pull

    a. (Free Skating) A means of gaining momentum skating
    backward by reaching wide and drawing the free foot skate
    behind and across the employed skate. The crossing skate is
    in a leading position. This movement is performed on bent
    knees with or without rise-and-fall. The employed skate
    remains the same throughout the movement.

    b. (Figures) A primary source of momentum in which the
    free foot is pulled or forced across the tracing foot, i.e.,
    steering.

  • Cross Stroke

    (International Dance) a step started with
    the feet crossed when the impetus is gained from the
    outside edge of the foot, which is becoming the free foot.

  • Crossed Step

    a. Forward (XF) - A step in which the free foot is placed
    on the floor along the outer edge side of the skating
    foot with the calf of the free leg crossed in front of the
    shin of the skating leg.

    b. Behind (XB) - A step in which the free foot is placed on
    the floor along the outer edge side of the skating foot
    with the shin of the free leg crossed behind the calf of
    the skating leg.

  • Crossed Tracing

    a. (Dance) - Tracing of succeeding steps on overlapping
    arcs, either convergent or concentric.

    b. (Figures) - An error in which the free leg or fee foot is
    carried across the tracing.

  • Crown

    The deepest arc of a loop.

  • Curtsy

    A two foot movement where the two front
    wheels of the trailing skate are touched to the floor directly
    behind and tracking the heel of the leading skate.

  • Cusp

    a. The point of any one-foot turn.

    b. (Figures) - The point of intersection of, and the two
    small curves, comprising the deviation from the arc.
    The size of the cusp for a three turn is one skate
    length. The size of the cusp for brackets, rockers, and
    counters is ‘a skate length’.

  • Cut-offs

    A forward Half Turn Mohawk or Choctaw Jump
    with the landing leg crossed in front of the free leg.

  • Cut Step

    (Dropped Chasse) - A Chasse’ during the
    execution of which the new free foot is moved against or
    into the line of travel.

  • Cheated

    A content item performed incorrectly while
    having the false appearance of correctness.

  • Checking

    The intentional halting or decreasing of
    rotational momentum during a jump or spin. Also called
    Checking Out.

  • Choctaw

    A two-foot turn from a forward edge to the
    opposite backward edge or vice versa.

    a. Closed - (American Dance) A Choctaw with the free leg
    in front of the body after the turn. In this type of turn, the
    free foot upon becoming employed progresses past the
    tracing foot. This type of turn is referred to as a progressive
    type turn.

    (International Dance) A Choctaw in which the free foot is
    placed on the floor along the outer edge side of the skating
    foot at the heel. Following the weight transference, the
    position of the new free foot is in front of the toe of the
    skating foot. The final closed hip position gives this Choctaw
    its name.

    b. Open - A Choctaw with the free leg in front of the body
    after the turn. In the forward-to-back variety, the turn is
    executed heel to heel with the new free foot moving into
    the line of travel as the old free foot takes the floor. In the
    back-to-forward variety, the turn is executed from behind
    the heel, with the free leg trailing after the turn. This type of
    turn is referred to as a chasse’-type turn.

    c. Dropped - A Choctaw, either open or closed, where the
    second or turn edge is not held longer than one beat.
    d.Held - A Choctaw, either open or closed, the second, or
    turn edge, of which is held longer than one beat of music.

    e. Swing Choctaw - A Choctaw in which the free foot is
    swung forward passed the skating foot and is brought back
    close behind the skating foot before stepping down. It may
    be either an open or closed Choctaw depending on where
    the new skating foot takes the floor and the position (open
    or closed) of the new free hip.

  • Choctaw Jump

    A Two Foot, Half Turn Jump from a
    forward edge to the opposite backward edge, or vice versa.
    Can be performed with either counterclockwise or
    clockwise rotation in the air.

  • Choreography

    The composition and arrangement of
    jumps, spins, and footwork on the skating surface
    accompanied by a particular piece or pieces of music which
    evokes the character of the movements.

  • Chugging

    A tracing error in which the body weight shifts
    from the front to the back of the skate, or vice versa,
    thereby impeding purity of roll.

  • Clean

    A content item performed correctly according to
    its official description.

  • Clockwise

    Rotation in the direction which the hands of a
    clock rotate.

  • Closed

    a. A position of the free leg in front of the body.

    b. Hip rotation of the free leg inward.

    c. (Dance) A face-to-face position of partners.

    d. (Competition) Requiring prior qualification.

  • Closed Scoring

    A method of scoring in which the judges’
    grades are tabulated by the scoring officials without prior
    public display or announcement of grades or placement
    ordinals.

  • Closed Competition

    A competition requiring prior
    qualification.

  • Colledge

    A 1 1/2 Turn Jump performed from a LOF takeoff,
    counterclockwise rotation, to a LIB landing (no toe-stop
    assist on take-off or landing).

    Can also be done from a ROF
    take-off, clockwise rotation, to a RIB landing. Also called a
    Colledge Axel.

    a. Single Colledge - 1 1/2 turns in the air

    b. Double Colledge - 2 1/2 turns in the air

    c. Triple Colledge - 3 1/2 turns in the air

  • Combination

    A sequence of connected items performed
    in succession without interruption.

  • Complete

    Executed successfully. Possessing all necessary
    parts, items, components, or elements. Not lacking anything
    necessary. Finished.

  • Composition

    The order or arrangement of items in a
    free skating/pairs program in proper proportion or relation
    to the whole skating surface.

  • Competition

    A USARS sanctioned contest among
    skaters.

  • Connecting Movements

    Footwork which links together
    content items in a free skating/pairs program.

  • Contact Skating

    In pairs, movements executed while
    partners remain in contact with each other.

  • Content of Program

    The actual items or ingredients
    performed by a skater in a free skating/pairs program.

  • Contest

    Skaters performing before judges for placement
    in order of skill. A competition in which each contestant
    performs without direct contact with or interference from
    competitors.

  • Contestant

    Any skater who participates in one or more
    events of a contest.

    Contestant Team

    Any two skaters who participate in
    one or more events of a contest as a unit, as required by the
    specific rules for the given contest.

    Continuous Baseline

    A real or imaginary line, which is
    continuous around the skating surface, in relation to which
    the correct lobes (and/or flats) of a Border Dance are
    placed.

    In patterns with straight-aways, this portion of the
    continuous baseline would have two straight longitudinal
    references parallel to each other, which are connected at
    the ends with semi-circular type reference.

  • Cork Screw

    An IB Sit to IB Camel Combination Spin.
    Usually proceeded by another Camel.

  • Corner

    The area of a skating surface permitting the
    shortest linear dimension parallel to the barrier, or at right angles to the straightaway.

    The area of a skating surface of
    least length. That part of a dance that is to be skated only in
    the area of a skating surface of least length.

    That part of a dance specifically designed to connect one straightaway with the other.

  • Corner Steps

    Steps of a dance, which are to be skated
    only on the corners of the rink.

  • Count

    a. Music - The numerical reference to the beats of each
    measure of music.

    b. Skating - The numerical reference to the beats of a step
    which may or may not agree with the musician’s count.

  • Counter (Co)

    A one-foot turn without a change of edge
    with the rotation counter to the direction of the initial edge.

  • Counterclockwise

    Rotation in the opposite direction
    which the hands of a clock rotate.

  • Credit

    An acknowledgement that something is done well.

    Usually reflected in a higher score given by a judge.

  • Cross Cut

    Term used for a forward Cross Over or a
    backward Cross Pull.

  • Cross Over

    A means of gaining momentum skating forward by crossing the free foot (striking foot) in front of the employed foot (thrusting foot) while bending the striking
    knee and straightening the thrusting knee. Also called
    Stroking.

  • Cross Pull

    a. (Free Skating) A means of gaining momentum skating
    backward by reaching wide and drawing the free foot skate
    behind and across the employed skate. The crossing skate is
    in a leading position. This movement is performed on bent
    knees with or without rise-and-fall. The employed skate
    remains the same throughout the movement.

    b. (Figures) A primary source of momentum in which the
    free foot is pulled or forced across the tracing foot, i.e.,
    steering.

  • Cross Stroke

    (International Dance) a step started with
    the feet crossed when the impetus is gained from the
    outside edge of the foot, which is becoming the free foot.

  • Crossed Step

    a. Forward (XF) - A step in which the free foot is placed
    on the floor along the outer edge side of the skating
    foot with the calf of the free leg crossed in front of the
    shin of the skating leg.

    b. Behind (XB) - A step in which the free foot is placed on
    the floor along the outer edge side of the skating foot
    with the shin of the free leg crossed behind the calf of
    the skating leg.

  • Crossed Tracing

    a. (Dance) - Tracing of succeeding steps on overlapping
    arcs, either convergent or concentric.

    b. (Figures) - An error in which the free leg or fee foot is
    carried across the tracing.

  • Crown

    The deepest arc of a loop.

  • Curtsy

    A two foot movement where the two front
    wheels of the trailing skate are touched to the floor directly
    behind and tracking the heel of the leading skate.

  • Cusp

    a. The point of any one-foot turn.

    b. (Figures) - The point of intersection of, and the two
    small curves, comprising the deviation from the arc.

    The size of the cusp for a three turn is one skate
    length. The size of the cusp for brackets, rockers, and
    counters is ‘a skate length’.

  • Cut-offs

    A forward Half Turn Mohawk or Choctaw Jump
    with the landing leg crossed in front of the free leg.

  • Cut Step (Dropped Chasse)

    A Chasse’ during the
    execution of which the new free foot is moved against or
    into the line of travel.

  • D

  • 'D' Position

    An open side by side open relationship of
    partners wherein both progress in the same direction,

    b) Two three turns on the same Figure circle,
    remaining on one foot, with the turns dividing the
    circle into thirds.

  • Double Repetition

    Skating a figure two consecutive times without pause, completed by the stroke into the third repetition or by rolling off the circle at the short axis, having completed two tracings.

  • Draw

    Movement of the free leg in preparation for a turn
    on steps not permitting swings.

    Draw is used only on steps of four beats or longer during which rotation or preparation for a turn must be made.

  • Drawing Procedure

    The method by which the skating
    order of the contestants or contestant teams is to be and is
    determined, as prescribed by rule.

  • Dropped

    Not held longer than one beat of music.

  • E

  • 'E' Position

    A closed side by side relationship of partners
    wherein both progress in the same direction, forward or
    backward.

    E Position is distinguished from D Position by the
    requirement that partners face away from their clasped
    hands. Man is to the right of team, with handclasp and
    position of contact identical to D Position. The clasped
    hands may be held in either a trailing or leading position.

  • Edge

    A constant curve traced by the employed skate, with
    constant lean and weight to the center of the arc or circle
    being skated. The eight prescribed edges in roller skating (in
    alphabetical order):

    1. LIB (Left Inner Back) - Counterclockwise curve of a
    backward tracing left skate.

    2. LIF (Left Inner Forward) - Clockwise curve of a forward
    tracing left skate.

    3. LOB (Left Outer Back) - Clockwise curve of a backward
    tracing left skate.

    4. LOF (Left Outer Forward) - Counterclockwise curve of a
    forward tracing left skate.

    5. RIB (Right Inner Back) - Clockwise curve of a of a
    backward tracing right skate.

    6. RIF (Right Inner Forward) - Counterclockwise curve of a
    forward tracing right skate.

    7. ROB (Right Outer Back) - Counterclockwise curve of a
    backward tracing right skate.

    8. ROF (Right Outer Forward) - Clockwise curve of a
    forward tracing right skate.

  • Edge Hooked

    An abruptly deepened curve.

  • Employed

    In use. Tracing.

    a. Employed Foot - The foot and skate in contact with the
    surface, carrying the body weight.

    b. Employed Leg - The leg of the employed foot.

    c. Employed Skate - The skate in contact with the skating
    surface or if both feet are on the surface, the skate that
    carries the weight of the body.

    The tracing skate.

  • Entry

    The beginning of an item.

  • Euler

    A Full Turn Jump from a ROB take-off,
    counterclockwise rotation, to a LIB landing (no toe-stop assist on take-off or landing).

    Can also be done from a LOB take-off, clockwise rotation, to a RIB landing. Also called a
    Loop Step when used as a Connecting Jump in a
    Combination.

  • Event

    Any one part of a contest; elimination, semi-final, or
    final or any subdivision in the skating of a contest, but not
    the performance by each individual entry.

  • Excessive Lift

    A movement, which carries the entire, body and skates higher than just slight elevation off the floor
    during footwork movements. Obvious jumping effort.

  • Exit

    The finishing of an item.

  • F

  • F Position

    A closed side by side relationship of partners
    where one progresses in a forward direction while the other
    progresses in a backward direction, with the bodies carried
    out of direction alignment and not tracking.

    a. Standard - The man is to woman’s right, his right shoulder
    and hip alongside and as close as practical to the woman’s
    right shoulder and hip.

    b. Reverse - The man is to woman’s left, his left shoulder
    and hip alongside and as close as practical to the woman’s
    left shoulder and hip.

  • Fall

    The lowering of the body by action of the tracing knee
    and ankle. The complete loss of balance involving body
    contact with the skating surface.

  • False Lean

    Lean without maintaining a straight posture
    baseline.

  • Figure

    A prescribed movement symmetrically composed
    of at least two circles, but not more than three circles,
    involving primary, or primary and secondary movements,
    with or without turns. Figures are skated on circles, which
    have been inscribed on the skating surface.

  • Flat

    No edge or edges. A straight line traced by the
    employed skate.

    A term used for four wheels rolling on the
    skating surface with no curvature of the skate.

    In spinning, the term used for four wheels sliding on the skating surface.

  • Flat Back

    A slang term, which describes the correct and
    completed landing of any backward, landing jump (without a
    hook, toe-stop assist, or cheat of any kind).

    A backward landing, which is completed on the same arc on four wheels
    on the prescribed edge according to the official description
    of the jump.

  • Flight

    The skating of two, three, or four teams at the
    same time in an event of a dance contest.

    Groupings of thecontestant teams in a dance contest. The trajectory of a
    jump. The component of a jump in which the skater is
    airborne.

  • Flip

    A Full Turn Jump from a LIB take-off with a right (r)
    toe-plant, counterclockwise rotation, to a ROB landing (no
    toe-plant on the landing).

    Can also be done from a RIB takeoff
    with a left (l) toe-plant, clockwise rotation, and a LOB
    landing.

  • Flow

    An unimpeded motion that proceeds smoothly and
    evenly without apparent effort.

  • Following

    In the direction, which has been traced. The
    next step in a sequence.

    Acceptance by one partner of the
    harmonious relationship with the lead partner.

  • Footwork

    Specialized intricate steps used as an
    interpretive ingredient of a free skating/pairs program. See
    also Link Step.

    a. Primary Footwork - Footwork not using turns as an
    ingredient.

    b. Secondary Footwork - Footwork using two-foot turns as
    an ingredient.

    c. Advanced Footwork - Footwork using one-foot turns as
    an ingredient.

  • Forced Edge

    Tracing made with the weight outside the
    arc, or with the ankle dropped.

  • Form

    Posture, carriage, flow and motion reflecting
    smoothness and ease of performance while dancing, jumping,
    spinning and skating footwork.

  • Forward (F)

    The tracing foot moving in the direction of
    its toes.

  • Free

    Not in use. Not in contact with the skating surface,
    or not carrying the weight of the body. Unemployed.

  • Free Skating

    Individual and original composition of
    movement and pattern permitting complete freedom as to
    style and content.

    The basic movements in a free skating
    program consist of jumps, spins, and footwork, which are
    blended, in harmony with the skater’s choice of music.

  • G

  • 'G' Position

    A side-by-side relationship of partners used as
    a starting position and continued only for the opening steps
    of a dance.

    Man may be either to the right or left of the
    team. If to the left, man clasps woman’s left hand in his right
    hand, with unclasped hands held to the side; if to the right,
    man clasps woman’s right hand in his left hand. Also referred
    to as the hand in hand position.

  • Glide

    An uninterrupted flowing motion.

  • Grade

    The numerical value assigned to a competitive
    requirement by an individual judge. See Integer System.

  • Grip

    The method of hand contact in the various hold
    positions. For Dance these will be:

    a. Standard - The established or prescribed method of hand
    contact for any given position.

    b. Thumb Pivot Grip - A method of hand contact wherein
    the man to permit a change from B Position to Reverse B
    Position without a change of grip and without releasing
    contact clasps the woman’s thumbs. Identical side-by-side
    turns may be executed in this position without changing
    relation of partners to the pattern.

    c. Cross Arms - A method of hand contact which permits
    oppositely rotated but compatible turns to be executed
    without changing the relation of partners to the pattern of a
    dance.

    d. Tandem - The modification of standard B hold permitting
    the man to skate directly behind the woman. The woman
    brings her right hand up to a position directly in front of her
    right shoulder. The man’s right hand clasps the woman’s
    right hand with his forearm and wrist directly at the
    woman’s right armpit.

  • H

  • 'H' Position

    A side-by-side relationship of partners
    wherein both progress in the same direction, forward and
    backward.

    H Position is distinguished from B and D Positions
    only by the handhold.

    The man may be on either side of the
    team without the position being considered reversed. Arms
    of both partners are crossed in front of the bodies, right
    hands and left hands clasped palm to palm with fingers
    holding wrists, not in hand shaking grip.

  • Half Dayney

    A Half Turn Jump from a LOB take-off,
    counterclockwise rotation, and the option of a left (l) toeplant
    to RIF landing or a right (r) toe-plant to a LOF landing.

    Can also be done from a ROB take-off, clockwise rotation,
    and the option of either a right (r) toe-plant to a LIF landing
    or a left (l) toe-plant to a ROF landing.

  • Half Flip

    A Half Turn Jump from a LIB take-off with a right
    (r) toe-plant, counterclockwise rotation, and the option of a
    left (l) toe-plant to RIF landing or a right (r) toe-plant to a
    LOF landing.

    Can also be done from a RIB take-off with a left
    (l) toe-plant, clockwise rotation, and the option of either a
    right (r) toe-plant to a LIF landing or a left (l) toe-plant to a
    ROF landing.

  • Half Loop

    A Half Turn Jump from a ROB take-off,
    counterclockwise rotation, and the option of a left (l) toeplant
    to RIF landing or a right (r) toe-plant to a LOF landing.

    Can also be done from a LOB take-off, clockwise rotation,
    and the option of either a right (r) toe-plant to a LIF landing
    or a left (l) toe-plant to a ROF landing.

  • Half Lutz

    A Half Turn Jump from a LOB take-off with a
    right (r) toe-plant, counterclockwise rotation, and the
    option of a left (l) toe-plant to RIF landing or a right (r) toeplant
    to a LOF landing.

    Can also be done from a ROB take
    off with a left (l) toe-plant, clockwise rotation, and the
    option of either a right (r) toe-plant to a LIF landing or a left
    (l) toe-plant to a ROF landing.

  • Half Mapes

    A Half Turn Jump from a ROB take-off with a
    left (l) toe-plant, counterclockwise rotation, and the option
    of a left (l) toe-plant to RIF landing or a right (r) toe-plant to
    a LOF landing.

    Can also be done from a LOB take-off with a
    right (r) toe-plant, clockwise rotation, and the option of
    either a right (r) toe-plant to a LIF landing or a left (l) toeplant
    to a ROF landing.

  • Half Salchow

    A Half Turn Jump from a LIB take-off,
    counterclockwise rotation, and the option of a left (l) toeplant
    to RIF landing or a right (r) toe-plant to a LOF landing.

    Can also be done from a RIB take-off, clockwise rotation,
    and the option of either a right (r) toe-plant to a LIF landing
    or a left (l) toe-plant to a ROF landing.

  • Half Toe Walley

    A Half Turn Jump from a RIB take-off
    with a left (l) toe-plant, counterclockwise rotation, and the
    option of a left (l) toe-plant to RIF landing or a right (r) toeplant
    to a LOF landing.

    Can also be done from a LIB take-off
    with a right (r) toe-plant, clockwise rotation, and the option
    of either a right (r) toe-plant to a LIF landing or a left (l) toeplant
    to a ROF landing.

  • Heel Spin

    A pivot spin variation in which the toe wheels
    are lifted off the floor and the heel wheels pivot at the
    center of the spinning circle.

  • Height

    The highest point the body travels above the
    skating surface during the flight of a jump. The apex of a
    jump.

  • Held

    Employed for longer than one beat of music. See
    Choctaw, Mohawk, Three, and Turn.

  • High Wrap

    The body position during the flight of a jump
    in which the legs are crossed and the free foot rises above
    the employed knee.

  • Hitching

    An incorrect movement of the employed skate
    which involves skidding the leading wheel in order to assist a
    take-off, execute a turn, or conform to a designated pattern.

  • Hold

    The relationship of man and woman to each other in
    partnership without regard to method of hand contact.

    For dance definitions of each hold, see A Position, B Position, C
    Position, D Position, E Position, F Position, G Position, and
    H Position.

  • Hook

    A term used to describe the action of the employed
    skate during the take-off and/or landing of a jump which
    resembles the shape of a “J”.

    The tracing skate creates a sharp half-arc at the beginning or the ending of an edge.

  • Hooked Edge

    An abruptly deepened curve.

  • Hop

    A jump, without rotation, which involves a toe-plant
    on the take-off and/or landing.

  • Hyper-extension

    The over-straightening of a flexed limb.

  • I

  • IB (Inner Back)

    The curvature or slide of a backward
    tracing skate in the direction of the inside of the foot. Also
    called a Back Inside.

  • IF (Inner Forward)

    The curvature or slide of a forward
    tracing skate in the direction of the inside of the foot. Also
    called a Forward Inside.

  • Incomplete

    A figure in which the skater does not
    perform all of the prescribed parts.

  • Inner (abr. I)

    A curve wherein the inside of the foot (big
    toe side) is toward the center of the curve being skated.
    Also called an Inside Edge.

  • Inside Edge

    A curve wherein the inside of the foot (big
    toe side) is toward the center of the curve being skated.

  • Integer System

    The official grading system for
    competition utilizing whole numbers from 0 to 100 without
    the use of any fractions or factors.

  • Interpretation

    A display of understanding of the music
    used by the skater. This is the individual’s movements in
    harmony with the rhythm, tempo, and mood of the
    program’s music.

  • Interpretive Movement

    1. A movement, which imparts feeling or character to a free
    skating/pairs item.

    2. A series of steps or chain of footwork or movements
    which impart feeling or character to a routine, when a
    musical rendition which, because of its pace, mood, or
    accent lends itself to a performance of individual character
    or feeling.

  • Interpretive Routine

    A composition of skating
    movements, which bear a positive and identifiable
    relationship to the music used.

  • Inverted Camel

    A spin variation in the Camel position
    with hips and shoulders frontside facing up.

  • Item

    A single movement of a free skating/pairs program.

  • J

  • Judge

    An official commissioned to determine the value of
    a skater’s performance, or to assign an order of placement
    to contestants or contestant teams in a contest according to
    the level of skill.

  • Jump

    A movement, which carries the entire body and
    skates off the skating surface.

    1. Standard Jump - Any jump with a generally accepted name
    or official description.

      a. Half Turn Jump - A jump employing 180 degrees of
      rotation (1/2 turn in the air).

      b. Full Turn Jump (Single Jump) - A jump employing 360
      degrees of rotation (1 turn in the air).

      c. 1 1/2 Turn Jump - A jump employing 540 degrees of
      rotation (1 1/2 turns in the air).

      d. Double Jump - Any Single Jump with 1 full turn added. A
      jump employing 720 degrees of rotation (2 turns in the air).

      e. 2 1/2 Turn Jump - A jump employing 900 degrees of
      rotation (2 1/2 turns in the air).

      f. Triple Jump - Any Single Jump with 2 full turns added. A
      jump employing 1080 degrees of rotation (3 turns in the air).

      g. 3 1/2 Turn Jump - A jump employing 1260 degrees of
      rotation (3 1/2 turns in the air).

      h. Quadruple Jump - Any Single Jump with 3 full turns added.
      A jump employing 1440 degrees of rotation (4 turns in the
      air).

    2. Combination Jump - An item, which contains a succession
    of two or more jumps in which the landing edge of each
    jump is the take-off edge of the following jump.

    3. Jump Series - A succession of jumps in a row similar in
    appearance to a Combination with the exception that turns,
    changes-of-edge, footwork or other items are performed
    between any of the jumps.

    4. Connecting Jump - A Single Jump that is used as a link to
    jumps with more than one rotation in a Combination.

    5. Set-Up Jump - A Half Turn Jump used to prepare the
    rhythm, body position, and take-off edge of a subsequent
    jump of higher difficulty.

    6. Step Jump - A Half Turn Jump from one foot to the other
    foot without excessive lift, toe-plant, or toe-stop assist.

    7. Jump Variation - Any hop, leap, or jump that is out-of-theordinary
    or may not be a listed standard jump. Also, any
    standard or recognized jump with varied arm and/or leg
    positions which are visually pleasing and musically
    interpretive.

  • L

  • Landing

    The concluding and final component parts of any
    jump, leap, or hop.

    1. Landing Skate - The skate that traces the prescribed exit
    edge of any jump, leap, or hop.

    2. Landing Edge - The edge traced by the landing skate.

    3. Landing Foot - The foot of the landing skate.

    4. Landing Position - The form of the body during a landing.

    5. Outside Landing - Landing skate tracing an outside edge.

    6. Inside Landing - Landing skate tracing an inside edge.

  • Layover Camel

    A spin variation in the Camel position
    with the shoulder line and hipline perpendicular to the
    skating surface in the open position.

  • Leading

    In the direction to be traced. In position to
    control or the act of controlling the execution of a team
    movement.

  • Leading Partner

    The member of the team in position to
    control the movement skated.

  • Lean

    The inclination of the body to either side of the
    vertical.

    a. True Lean - Lean with a posture baseline.

    b. False Lean - Lean without a posture baseline.

  • Leap

    A jump, without rotation, which does not involve a
    toe-plant or toe-stop assist on the take-off or landing.

  • Lift

    A pairs movement in which a partner is assisted aloft.

  • Line of Travel

    Same Direction of Travel.

  • Link Step

    Step used to connect items of a free
    skating/pairs program.

  • Lobe

    A curved portion of a pattern beginning and ending
    at the baseline.

  • Loop

    Figures:

      a. An edge that spirals in, half circles around, and spirals out
      to cross itself.

      b. A consecutive pair of matched spirals centering on the
      long axis of a circle.

      c. The loop should be egg shaped, not a round circle.
      d. The shape of the loop on the crown is the most
      important.

      e. Loops should be executed on a steady radius with at least
      three wheels in contact with the skating surface.

    Free Skating:

      a. In footwork, an edge that spirals in, half circles around,
      and spirals out to cross itself.

      c. A Full Turn Jump starting and landing on the same edge
      (no toe-plant on the take-off), with rotation in the
      direction of the edge.

  • Low Wrap

    The body position during the flight of a jump
    in which the legs and feet are crossed below the knees.

  • Lunging

    An incorrect movement wherein the upper part
    of the body is thrust forward in an effort to increase
    momentum.

  • Lutz

    A Full Turn Jump from a LOB take-off with a right (r)
    toe-plant, counterclockwise rotation, to a ROB landing (no
    toe-plant on the landing).

    Can also be done from a ROB take-off with a left (l) toe-plant, clockwise rotation, and a
    LOB landing.

  • M

  • Manner of Performance

    The way or style in which a skater executes the movements of a free skating/pairs
    routine.

  • Mapes

    A Full Turn Jump from a ROB take-off with a left
    (l) toe-plant, counterclockwise rotation, to a ROB landing
    (no toe-plant on the landing).

    Can also be done from a LOB
    take-off with a right (r) toe-plant, clockwise rotation, and a
    LOB landing.

  • Mark

    The total of the grades given by the judges to a
    skater. Same as score.

  • Maximum Grade

    The highest grade or mark a skater
    may receive from any one judge.

  • Mazurka

    A jump variation in which there is a scissoring
    action with the legs extended downward and straight, with
    the feet crossed below the knees.

  • Meet

    A competition where more than one contest is
    scheduled to be conducted.

  • Minimum Grade

    The lowest grade or mark a skater may
    receive from any one judge.

  • Mohawk

    A two-foot turn from a forward edge to a
    similar backward edge or vice versa.

    a. Closed - A Mohawk with the free leg in front of the
    body after the turn. In this type of turn the free foot, upon
    becoming employed, progresses past the tracing foot. Turns
    of this type are referred to as progressive type Mohawks.
    The final closed free hip position gives this Mohawk its
    name.

    b. Open - (American Dance) A Mohawk with the free leg
    behind the body after the turn. In the forward to backward
    variety the turn is executed heel to heel. In the backward to
    forward variety the turn is executed from behind the heel,
    with the free leg trailing after the turn with the leg moving
    into open position. Turns of this type are referred to as
    Chasse’ type Mohawks.

    c. Open (International Dance) - A Mohawk in which the
    free foot, during the skating of the forward edge is
    turned open, then brought to the floor so that it strikes
    on the inner edge side of the skating foot. The free
    foot, as it becomes the skating foot, maintains a
    continuous motion and sweeps the skating foot off the
    floor and this latter foot maintains and open hip
    position as it leaves the floor.

    d. Swing Mohawk - A Mohawk in which the free leg is
    swung forward past the skating foot and is brought back
    close beside the skating foot before stepping down. It may
    be either an open or a closed swing mohawk depending on
    where the new skating foot takes the floor and the position
    (open or closed) of the new free hip.

    e. Dropped - A Mohawk, either open or closed, after
    which the second or turn edge is not to be held longer than
    one beat.

    f. Held - A Mohawk, either open or closed, the second or
    turn stroke of which is held longer than one beat of music.
    Mohawk Jump - A Two Foot, Half Turn Jump from a
    forward edge to a similar backward edge or vice versa. Can
    be performed with either counterclockwise or clockwise
    rotation in the air.

  • Momentum

    The force of motion acquired by a moving
    skater as a result of the continuing motion.

  • Musical Cut

    The blending of different pieces of music
    together.

  • N

  • Non-interpretive Routine

    A composition of skating movements which bear no particular relationship to the
    music used. A routine in which the relationship between
    movement and music is not recognizable.

  • Novelty Move

    A new or unusual movement or item.

  • O

  • OB (Outer Back)

    The curvature or slide of a backward
    tracing skate in the direction of the outside of the foot. Also
    called a Back Outside.

  • OF (Outer Forward)

    The curvature or slide of a
    forward tracing skate in the direction of the outside of the
    foot. Also called a Forward Outside.

  • Official

    Bearing approval or authority. Any person
    commissioned to administer, execute or apply rules and
    regulations.

      a. Contest - A contest that is part of or leads to or toward
      the United States Championships.

      b. Rule - A published regulation limiting, controlling, or
      affecting the entry, participation, conduct, or procedure of a
      contest, membership, or associate membership.

      c. Ruling - An interpretation or directive by an authorized
      official or official body made in accordance with published
      rules.

  • Open

    a. The free leg behind the body. A position of the body in
    which the free hip, leg, knee, and foot are rotated outward.

    b. Competition - Not requiring qualification from a prior
    contest of lower rank.

    Opening Steps - Preliminary edges or flats used to gain or
    build momentum for the execution of the required edges or
    flats of a dance.

  • Optional

    Permitted but not required. Subject to choice.
    Extended in Dance as follows:

      a. Hold - Selective or discretionary use of hand contact, but
      with required body position.

      b. Pattern - Arrangement of lobes and/or steps of a dance
      subject to the skater’s choice within the limits prescribed for
      each specific case.

      c. Opening - Preliminary steps permitting skater’s choice of
      edge or edges within prescribed musical limits.

  • Ordinal

    A number indicating an individual judge’s
    placement of a contestant or contestant team.

  • Out-of-the-Ordinary

    Not regular or customary.

    Distinctive characteristics not commonly experienced.
    Unusual style or method.

  • Outer (abr. O)

    A curve wherein the outside of the foot
    (small toe side) is toward the center of the curve being
    skated. Also called an Outside Edge.

  • Outside Edge (O)

    A curve wherein the outside of the
    foot (small toe side) is toward the center of the curve being
    skated.

  • Overhead Lift

    In pairs, a lift in which the woman is held
    aloft (above the man’s head) by using one or both arms
    extended above his head in a locked position.

  • Over Rotation

    The excess rotation of the body during
    the landing of a jump due primarily to the lack of halting or
    decreasing the rotational momentum before or upon
    landing.

    P

  • Pace

    The rate of movement of the employed skate and
    body around a figure.

  • Pairs Skating

    A free skating event in which a team
    consisting of a man and a woman performs a series of spins,
    lifts, jumps and connecting footwork in unison with a musical
    selection.

  • Paragraph Figure

    A figure using two circles which
    requires the completion of both circles on each take-off.
    May or may not involve turns.

  • Parallel

    a. Position - Relationship of partners wherein hips and
    shoulders are parallel to each other.

    b. Take-Off - Both feet directly alongside each other and on
    the same arc at the instant of weight transfer.

  • Pat Lowe

    A Full Turn Jump performed from a RIB takeoff,
    counterclockwise rotation, to a LIB landing (no toe-stop
    assist on take-off or landing).

    Can also be done from a LIB take-off, clockwise rotation, to a RIB landing.

  • Pattern

    The course in which a skater/team travels during
    a free skating/pairs routine. The prescribed relationship of
    the steps of a dance to a dance baseline.

      a. Border - Steps of a dance having a prescribed relationship
      to a baseline but without a prescribed location on the floor.

      b. Set - Steps of a dance having a prescribed relationship to a
      baseline as above and with certain steps required to be
      executed at the corners of the rink.

  • Phrase

    A short musical expression or group of measures.
    The number of measures to each phrase varies with the type
    of music.

  • Pisces

    A jump variation in which the skater performs a
    partial backbend in the air with the legs and arms rounded
    backward. Also called an Arch Back Jump.

  • Pivot

    a. A rotation of the body around one side, sometimes with
    the use of the toe-stop of the employed skate.

    b. (Figures) - A movement during the change of feet at
    circle intersections; to facilitate the thrust required for
    sufficient momentum, and still allow the required tight
    closure of the circle. The trailing wheels of the thrusting
    skate hold the weight while the skate holds the line into the
    strike zone. The leading wheels slide until the skate is in a
    position not quite parallel to the long axis, then stopping the
    slide, sharply, but not violently, thrusts from the inside of the
    skate. A pivot becomes a hitching error if it does not occur
    simultaneous to the thrust onto the striking foot.

  • Placement

    a. The rank achieved by a contestant or contestant team.

    b. The location of turns and take-offs of a given figure.

  • Placed Step - Any step which takes the floor without a
    gliding motion.

  • Planing

    A system of body inclination employing horizontal
    and parallel alignment of the head, shoulders, and hips.

  • Point

    Extension of the toes of the free foot away from the
    body.

  • Position

    a. Body - The relation of members of the body to the torso.

    b. Team - The relation of partners to each other.

    c. Parallel AND Position - Immediately alongside and parallel
    to the tracing skate.

    d. Angular AND Position - Immediately alongside and
    angular to the tracing skate.

  • Posture

    Body position used by a skater. Position which
    will create a baseline through the body.

  • Posture Baseline

    An imaginery line from the center of
    the skating foot through the hipline and shoulderline.

  • Primary Movement

    An edge or combination of edges
    not involving a turn.

  • Principal Part of the Figure

    Take-offs, turns, and
    changes of edge.

  • Print

    a. The trace left by the employed skate.

    b. The inscribed circles for Figure Skating.

  • Program

    The presentation by a skater of an organized
    system of skating movements, including jumps, spins, and
    footwork, which are blended in harmony with a musical
    recording. Also known as a routine.

  • Progressive

    A step which moves ahead of the old tracing
    foot in the direction of travel., thus bringing the new free
    foot off the floor trailing the new skating foot.

    (International
    Dance) It should be noted that the striking foot is not
    crossed at the point of strike, yet the resulting free leg may
    cross the trace as it creates the impetus of the stroke.

      a. Crossed - A progressive in which the new tracing foot
      crosses the old.

      b. In Line - A progressive for which the new tracing foot
      steps in line with the old.

  • Progressive Running Steps

    A series of progressive
    steps executed on successive beats of music, not involving
    cross steps, chasses or changes of direction.

  • Progression

    Movement of a skater or skates on the
    surface from one location to another in a continuous
    manner.

  • Pulled

    A take-off or landing which creates a new arc.
    Pumping - The incorrect use of hitching and/or body
    movements designed to gain momentum in a spin.

  • Pure Edge

    An edge without variation in the degree of
    curvature.

  • Q

  • Qualification

    The act of meeting the requirements for
    entry into a contest. The act of advancing from one event to
    the next in a contest.

  • Qualify

    To meet the requirements for participation in any
    category in a function of USARS.

  • Qualifying Placement

    a. A place in an event which is high enough to permit
    advancement to the next event of the same contest.

    b. Placing in any contest in a position which permits
    advancement to the same contest in the next higher ranking
    championship.

  • Quirk

    Any novelty or out-of-the-ordinary move in any
    content item (jumps, spins, and footwork).

  • R

  • Recording (Music)

    A musical composition reduced to
    some medium for reproduction over a sound system.

  • Referee

    A commissioned official appointed by the director
    of a contest to discharge the duties as required by rule and
    prescribed for contests to be skated.

  • Requirement

    a. An individual dance or figure which the skater must
    execute or perform in a contest.

    b. Any rule or regulation which must be met by a member
    or associate member for any function of the respective
    organization.

  • Revolution

    A complete circle (360 degrees) created by
    the progressive motion of a body around a center or axis.
    Rhythma.

  • Music

    A pattern of strong, weak, and off beats which give
    a type of music its own individual character.

    b. Skating - The movement of the skater’s body in harmony
    with the music, or in harmonious relation with the
    movement being skated.

  • Rise

    The raising of the body by action of the tracing knee
    and ankle.

  • Rise and Fall

    An interpretive raising and lowering of the
    body to impart rhythm and flow to a dance or figure.

  • Rock Back

    The transference of body weight from the
    leading skate to the trailing skate without a change of speed.

  • Rocker (Rk)

    A one-foot turn from a forward edge to a
    similar backward edge, or vise versa, with the rotation
    continuous with the initial edge and with the cusp inside the
    original circle.

  • Rockover

    A preparatory body weight shift from one side
    of the skate to the other, thus changing the edge of the
    employed skate.

    Permitting a parallel relationship of the
    skates at the point of take-off; necessary when moving from
    an outside edge on one foot to a similar edge on the other
    foot.

    A preparatory change of lean to permit a graceful
    transition from one lobe or circle to the next lobe or circle.

  • Roll

    A simple long or short forward or backward outside
    edge which is in the form of a lobe with the curve in the
    opposite direction to the preceding edge or lobe.

    A rolling movement is thus achieved which gives the step its name.

      a. Regular - A natural movement of the skates and body
      from edge to similar edge.

      b. Cross - A step from one edge to a similar edge with the
      free leg moved into the direction of travel across the
      employed leg before the step.

      c. Swing Roll - A roll held for several beats of music during
      which the free leg swings past the skating foot before
      returning to the floor at the “and” position.

      d. The constant, unimpeded flow of the employed skate.
      Rotate - The act of turning in a circular motion around an
      axis which runs lengthwise through the center of the body.
      To turn in a jump.

  • Rotated

    The completion of turning in a circular motion
    around a an axis which runs lengthwise through the center
    of the body. The completed number of turns in a jump.

  • Rotation

    A circular motion of the torso in a horizontal
    plane. A movement of the torso around the posture
    baseline.

  • (Dance)

    a. Concentric - Rotation of partners at the same time
    around the same team posture baseline. Rotation of partners
    at the same time on the same arc.

    b. Non-concentric - Rotation of one partner while the other
    continues in the initial direction. Rotation of both partners
    at the time when each member of the team turns on a
    diverging arc.

  • S

  • Salchow

    A Full Turn Jump from a LIB take-off,
    counterclockwise rotation, to a ROB landing (no toe-stop
    assist on take-off or landing).

    Can also be done from a RIB
    take-off, clockwise rotation, to a LOB landing.

  • Sanctioned

    Explicit written permission, authorization,
    confirmation, or recognition of any action by a member or
    associate member of an organization by the National
    Governing Body of that organization.

  • Scissor

    The act of moving the legs in opposite directions
    then returning them to the original position.

  • Score

    The total of grades given by an individual judge to a
    skater or team for the requirements of an event of a
    contest. Same as Mark.

  • Scoring

    a. The act of recording and tabulating the marks of the
    judges in a contest or event of a contest and
    determining the results of such contest or event.

    b. The assigning by the judge of individual grades to the
    various contestants or contestant teams in an event of
    a contest.

  • Secondary Movement

    A combination of edges involving
    a two-foot turn.

  • Sequence

    A related series of steps or turns.

  • Serpentine Eight Figure

    A figure employing three
    circles, the first half circle executed from a take-off in the
    middle circle, followed by another take-off and skating the
    full circle.

    One full repetition consists of a strike-off, half
    circle, take-off, full circle, take-off, half circle, take-off, full
    circle.

  • Serpentine Figure

    A figure employing three circles, one
    and one-half circles being executed on each take-off with a
    change of edge after the first half circle. This may or may
    not involve turns.

  • Set In

    The pattern formed by the entrance and exit
    shoulders of a loop figure.

  • Shadow Skating

    In pairs, skating movements done
    simultaneously by partners without contact.

  • Shoot-the-Duck

    A forward or backward movement on
    any edge or flat with the body bent in sitting position with
    one leg extended out in front of the body.

  • Shoulders

    The entry and exit arcs of a one foot turn or
    loop.

  • Showmanship

    The ability of a skater to present a free
    skating performance in a favorable and entertaining manner.

  • Side Pressure

    A primary source of momentum employing
    pressure against the side of the skate,which is becoming
    unemployed.

    The term “Side Push” often is used to mean
    Side Pressure.

  • Singles

    Free skating performed by individuals.

  • Size

    The official dimension of circles measured by
    diameter, inscribed on the skating surface for use in skating
    of figures.

    Official sizes permitted are:

      Standard competition figure: 6 meters

      Loop Figures: 2.4 meters.

  • Skating Order

    The sequence in which contestants are to
    perform the required parts of a contest.

  • Skating Surface

    The area designated for a skating
    performance with boundaries on all sides.

  • Slide

    A step where the free foot (4 wheels) is kept on the
    surface and moved to a leading position and the employed
    foot remains directly beneath the body.

  • Slip Step

    A progressive with the leg held for two beats.
    The free leg crosses the trace behind the skating foot.

  • Spin

    A series of continuous revolutions around an axis
    that passes through a portion of the body.

    For full credit as an item in a free skating/pairs program, each position of a
    spin must be held at least three revolutions, the entrances
    and exits not being counted.

    1. Travel Spin - A spin in which the axis moves.

    2. Centered Spin - A spin in which the axis is stationary.

      a. Circle Spin - A spin in which no wheels pivot and the
      tracing skate creates a small circle no more than one skate
      length radius around the center on which it revolves.

      b. Pivot Spin - A spin in which one wheel pivots while the
      others slide or roll around it.

    3. Two Foot Spin (or Two Toe Spin) - A spin requiring both
    feet for its execution. A two-toe spin uses the front wheels
    only on both skates.

      a. Heel-and-Toe - A combination of an IB on one skate and
      an IF on the other skate with the front wheels of the IF edge
      and the rear wheels of the IB edge sliding.

      b. Crossed-Foot - Executed on two outside edges, one
      forward and one backward, with the heels and knees turned
      out and the legs crossed below the knees.

    4. One Foot Spin: A spin executed on one skate.

      a. Upright - a spin in which the body remains in a standing
      position.

      b. Sit - a spin in which the seat is lower than the employed
      knee.

      c. Camel - a spin wherein the body is in a continuous arched
      line from head through free foot while remaining no less
      than parallel to the floor.

    5. Combination Spin - A spin in which the position is
    changed or the spinning edge is changed, or both, without
    involving a change of feet.

    6. Change-Foot Spin - A spin, which involves a change of
    feet.

    7. Jump Spin - A spin with a jump as the means of entry.

    8. Spin-Jump-Change-Foot - A spin that involves a jump and
    a change of feet between the component spins.

    9. Spin Variation - Any spin that is out-of-the-ordinary in
    both body positions and unusual methods of spinning.

  • Spiral

    a. A curve which constantly approaches or recedes from
    the center around which it revolves.

    b. A body position with the body inclined forward and the
    free leg held parallel to the skating surface. See
    Arabesque.

  • Split

    (a) (Dance) - A two foot step where one foot (4 wheels) is
    kept on the surface and moved to a leading position and the
    other foot (4 wheels) is moved to a trailing position.

    (b) (Free Skating) - A leap or jump variation in which the legs
    are extended away from the body as far as possible.

      a. Full Split - Hips across the leg line with one leg extended
      in front and the other in back.

      b. Straddle Split - Hips in-line with the legs, both legs
      extended down and outward to the side of the body.

      c. Russian Split - A Full Split with the legs parallel to the seat
      and toes pointed upward. Legs are generally in a wide “V”
      shape in front of the body with arms extended toward the
      feet.

      d. Stag Split - Similar to a Scissor Split, except the front leg is
      bent with the foot brought up under the body.

  • Spotting

    In spinning, the centered axis being stationary in
    one spot on the skating surface.

  • Spread Eagle

    A movement in which the feet are split
    apart to the side of the body with the toes pointed outward
    in opposite directions.

  • Stance

    A stationary position preceding a start.

  • Start

    The beginning of a movement from a stationary
    position.

  • Statue-of-Liberty

    A jump variation in which one hand
    extends high over the head while the other hand is held
    tightly across the midsection of the body and bent at the
    elbow.

  • Steering

    An unnatural movement or positioning of any
    part of the body to control the direction or path of the
    employed skate.

  • Step

    The transference of body weight from one foot to
    the other.

  • Stepping Out

    An expression for a common error of
    jumping in which the skater cannot hold balance and/or body
    control on the landing of a jump and must step to the other
    foot to regain balance.

  • Steward

    A competition official with direct charge over
    the progression of a portion of an event.

      a. Record Steward - An official charged with the supervision
      of play of the recordings used in a free skating event.

      b. Competitor’s Steward - An official charged with the
      undelayed succession of competitors in their proper order.

  • Stiff

    Rigid, inflexible, and not easily bent. Impeded flow.
    Lacking in ease or grace.

  • Straightaway

    a. The area on the sides of the skating surface, parallel to the
    barrier, which is the longest linear dimension of the floor.
    The area of a skating surface of greatest length.

    b. That part of a dance that is to be skated only in the area
    of a skating surface of greatest length.

  • Strike-Off

    The starting or initial stroke of a figure.

  • Striking Foot

    The newly employed skating foot.

  • Strike Zone

    The area along the short axis, one skate
    length on either side of the long axis where a strike off is
    correctly performed.

  • Stroke

    A step executed so as to impart momentum.

      a. Placed Stroke - A stroke for which the new tracing foot is
      placed on the skating surface without a gliding motion.

      b. Full Stroke - A stroke employing a gliding motion of the
      new tracing skate.

  • Style

    The individual expression of the skater or team. In
    Free Skating/Pairs, expression without requirement.

  • Sub Curve

    An unintentional deviation from the arc
    required.

  • Sum

    The total of the individual scores given by a single
    judge for a single contestant or contestant team.

  • Superimposition

    Successive tracings upon an original
    tracing.

  • Swing

    A controlled movement of the free leg from trailing
    to leading position or vice versa, with both positions
    matched as to height from the floor, relation to the body,
    and relation to the employed skate.

  • Swing Rocker or Counter

    A type of rocker or counter
    turn in which the free leg is swung forward past the skating
    foot before the turn is executed.

    After the turn, the free leg
    is either swung forward past the skating foot and held over
    the tracing line or is swung behind the skating foot and held
    over the tracing line.

  • T

  • Take Off

    The beginning of a new edge or flat from
    another edge or flat

      a. Two Foot - An incorrect movement during which the
      skater rides both skates for a noticeable distance.

      b. Toe Stop - An incorrect movement where the toe stop is
      used to help impart momentum.

      c. Clean - A correct take off. A take off employing a smooth
      transition from one foot to the other without placing,
      hitching, jumping, or any other stiff, unnatural movement.

      d. (Free Skating) - The first component part of a jump in
      which preparation and execution of carrying the entire body
      and skates off the skating surface is accomplished, after
      which the body is airborne.

      e. Strike-off – initial start.

      f. In-line - A take-off where the new tracing foot is placed in
      line with the old tracing foot, in a continuous motion.

      g. Pocketed - A take-off where the heel is placed at the
      instep on the forward takeoff and the toe is placed at the
      instep on the backward take-off in a continuous motion.

      h. Pivot - On all take-offs the pivot must occur before the
      placement of the new skating foot. Even though the foot
      pivots, the motion is continuous and uninterrupted.

      i. A take off can be pocketed or in-line and receive the same
      credit as long as it has been done correctly, smoothly, and
      done within the boundaries of the strike zone.

  • Take-Off Edge

    The edge executed by the employed skate
    at the point of departure from the skating surface during the
    take-off of any jump.

  • Technical Merit

    In competition, the score given by a
    judge for the level of difficulty of the jumps, spins, and
    footwork performed during a free skating/pairs program.

  • Tempo

    The pace and speed of a musical composition. The
    number of beats per minute.

  • Three (3)

    A one-foot turn from a forward edge to an
    opposite backward edge or vise versa, with the rotation in
    the direction of the initial edge, and with the cusp inside the
    circle.

    (Dance)

      a. Dropped - A three turn, which is executed on the last
      beat of a stroke. A three turn where the concluding edge is
      held for no more than one beat of music.

      b. Held - A three turn, the concluding edge of which is held
      for more than one beat of music.

  • Thrusting Foot

    The pushing foot (the about to be free
    foot).

  • Time

    The time indicated by the stop watches and
    recording by the appropriate official.

  • Timer

    An official whose duty is to determine the elapsed
    time of any event or part of an event in accordance with the
    established rules for the contest in which he serves.

  • Timing

    The relationship between the accent of the music
    and the steps skated.

  • Timing for Free Skating

    The length of time a free
    skating/pairs program is performed. Official timing of a
    routine begins when the skater moves any part of his or her
    body.

      a. Minimum Time - The official designated time a skater must
      remain within the boundaries of the floor during a free
      skating/pairs program to avoid disqualification.

      b. Maximum Time - The official designated time limit a skater
      may be judged during a free skating/pairs program. Official
      timing of a routine ends when Maximum Time is reached.

      Timing for Skate Dancing - Timing for Skate Dancing is
      the harmonious relationship between the “Team”
      movements in executing the correct fundamentals of skating
      and the specified requirements of the dance to support the
      musical accompaniment.

      As a primary fundamental,
      harmonious relationship would require that the proper steps
      are skated on the proper count and are sustained for the
      proper number of beats.

  • Toe-Plant

    The correct use of the toe-stop of the
    unemployed skate to assist the take-off and/or landing of a
    jump as provided in the description and requirements of the
    jump executed.

  • Toe Point

    A required contact with the skating surface of
    the toe roller or rollers of the unemployed skate.

      a. Front Toe Point (FTP) - A toe point with the outside front
      roller in front of the body.

      b. Back Toe Point (BTP) - A toe point with the inside front
      roller behind the body.

  • Toe-Stop

    The device securely attached to the skate at the
    toes (in front of the forward rollers) made of rubber or a
    similar material.

  • Toe-Stop Assist

    The incorrect use of the toe-stop of the
    employed skate to assist the take-off and/or landing of a
    jump according to the description and requirements of the
    jump executed.

  • Toe-Stop Spin

    A pivot spin variation executed on the
    front rollers and the toe-stop of the employed skate.

  • Toe Walley

    A Full Turn Jump from a RIB take-off with a
    left (l) toe-plant, counterclockwise rotation, to a ROB
    landing (no toe-plant on the landing).

    Can also be done from
    a LIB take-off with a right (r) toe-plant, clockwise rotation,
    and a LOB landing.

  • Torque

    Opposing rotation of the shoulders and hips
    around the body axis.

  • Tracing or Trace

    The real or imaginary mark showing
    the path of the employed skate.

    Employed. In use.

      a. Tracing Foot - The employed foot.

      b. Tracing Knee - The knee of the employed foot.

      c. Tracing Skate - The skate on the surface. The employed
      skate.

  • Tracking

    The superimposition of tracings of partners.

  • Trailing

    Following the direction previously traced.

  • Transition

    A change from one edge to another; a change
    from one circle to another; a take off.

  • Travel

    One of the three dimensions of a jump designated
    by the distance of the flight of the jump on the skating
    surface. Refers to the amount of distance between take-off
    and landing.

  • Triple Repetition

    Three consecutive executions of a
    round of a figure.

  • Tuck

    1. (Dance) - A movement wherein the knee of the free leg
    is bent and brought close to the employed knee before being
    extended to the rear. The free foot does not touch the floor
    during this movement.

    2. (Free Skating) - A jump variation in which both legs are
    held tightly together and bent at the knees and hips so as to
    bring the feet up under the body.

      a. Cannonball Tuck - Both legs tucked under the body with
      both arms wrapped around the legs.

      b. Shoot-the-Duck Tuck - One leg extended forward similar
      to the front part of a Full Split, while the other leg is tucked
      under the body.

  • Turn

    1. (Dance) - A change of direction of skate or skates.

      a. One foot turn - A turn without the change of feet.

      b. Two foot turn - A turn produced with both feet by
      changing from one foot to the other. See Choctaw and
      Mohawk.

      c. Open - A turn with the free leg behind the body after the
      turn. See Choctaw and Mohawk. A chasse’ type turn.

      d. Closed - A turn with the free leg in front of the body after
      the turn. See Choctaw and Mohawk. A progressive type
      turn.

      e. Held - A turn the concluding edge of which is held longer
      than one beat of music. See Choctaw, Mohawk, and Three.

      f. Dropped - A turn the concluding edge is held not longer
      than one beat of music. See Choctaw, Mohawk, and Three.

      g. Pulled - An incorrect movement wherein the skater uses
      some part of his body to increase the momentum of the
      tracing skate during the execution of a one foot turn.

      h. Jumped - An incorrect movement during which more than
      one wheel of the employed skate leaves the floor during the
      execution of a one foot turn.

      i. Kicked - An incorrect movement during which the free leg
      is kicked past the skating leg before or during the turn.

    2. (Free Skating) - In jumping, a 360 degree rotation of the
    body while in the air.

      a. Half Turn - 180 degree rotation of the body in the air.

      b. Full Turn (Single Turn) - 360 degree rotation of the body
      in the air. One turn.

      c. Double Turn - 720 degree rotation of the body in the air.
      Two turns.

      d. Triple Turn - 1080 degree rotation of the body in the air.
      Three turns.

      e. Quadruple Turn - 1440 degree rotation of the body in the
      air. Four turns.

  • Turning Open

    A common error in jumping describing
    the action of stepping forward onto the toe-stop into the
    direction of travel during the take-off of a jump.

    Most commonly done on a Mapes or Toe Walley.

  • Twistover Camel

    A spin variation done in the Camel
    position executed by the free side hip and upper body
    closing into and under the employed side.

  • Twizzle

    A turn of one revolution executed in less than
    one beat of music. The approach to the turn is a LOF edge
    during which the free leg is advanced forward and the right
    shoulder pressed back.

    To execute the turn, the free foot is
    brought to the heel of the tracing foot. Then a very short
    counter turn followed by a BO half-three turn is executed.
    The right foot should be turned outward a right angles to
    help create a semi-spin and to be in position for a right angle
    push to the ROF when the turn has been completed.

  • U

  • Unity

    The harmonious performance of identical or
    compatible skating movements by partners.

  • V

  • Variety Move

    A movement in a free skating/pairs
    program that is graceful, out-of-the-ordinary, and made to
    show originality.

  • Violent

    An action marked by extreme force or sudden,
    intense, and uncontrolled movement.

  • W

  • Walley

    A Full Turn Jump from a RIB take-off,
    counterclockwise rotation, to a ROB landing (no toe-stop
    assist on take-off or landing). Can also be done from a LIB
    take-off, clockwise rotation, to a LOB landing.

  • Waltz Jump

    A Half Turn Jump performed from a LOF
    take-off, counterclockwise rotation, to a ROB landing (no
    toe-stop assist on take-off or landing).

    Can also be done
    from a ROF take-off, clockwise rotation, to a LOB landing.

  • Wobble

    A tracing error in which there is a constant
    shifting of weight or pressure from one side of the employed
    skate to the other.