Glossary of Terms
Industry term for a type of edge construction on skis and snowboards using high quality ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) plastic.
A large percentage of Alpine skis fall into this category. All-Mountain skis are designed to perform in all types of snow conditions and at most speeds. Other names for this style of ski include Mid-Fat skis, All-Purpose skis, and the One-ski Quiver.
The day’s over – time for drinks and swapping war stories from the slopes.
A helmet wired with speakers that allows you to listen to music while skiing.
A safety device worn by skiers, snowboarders, and others in case an avalanche traps them. The beacon transmits a signal (typically at the international standard frequency of 457khz) that rescuers can use to locate a buried person. An essential item for anyone venturing into the backcountry or off trail skiing.
The triggering of avalanches through artificial means, including controlled explosions, to make slopes safe for skiers.
Any area outside of resort boundaries or elsewhere that is not patrolled or cleared of avalanche dangers. This is skiing and snowboarding at your own risk, thus the backcountry is a place for knowledgeable experts only.
A facemask worn to cover exposed skin. A key extra whenever you are caught riding a lift in fierce, driving wind or snow.
Definition of this term is dependent on the context it is being used for. Base may be used to describe the underside of a ski or snowboard, the main area at the bottom of a ski resort, or the overall depth of snow.
The bottom portion of a ski or snowboard binding. Of vital importance as this is the portion of binding in direct contact with ski/snowboard and therefore transfers all movement. Typically made with high-end plastics for both flexibility and strength.
Typically round or star-shaped plastic piece located at the bottom end of a ski pole. Their primary purpose is to keep your poles from pushing too deep into the snow.
A term for a snow bank, often used to provide stability on the outside of a turn.
Also known as Base plate. (see: Base Plate)
What connects a ski/snowboard boot to the actual ski/snowboard itself. Ski bindings are designed to release from the ski during a fall, while snowboard bindings do not.
Expert trail denoted on trail maps and signs by a black diamond. The trail may or may not be groomed, and can vary from the merely tricky to insanely difficult. A double black diamond indicates the steepest, most difficult runs at a resort.
Intermediate trail denoted on trail maps and signs by a blue square. Usually groomed and often the most popular runs. Note: At European resorts, a blue run is actually a beginner trail and that red is used to indicate an intermediate skill level.
Slang term for a skier or snowboarder flying down a slope in an out of control fashion.
Ski Boots. These will be the most uncomfortable footwear for walking that you have ever worn except maybe diving fins. But they are the foundation for your skiing.
The platform inside a boot shell that the liner sits atop.
A large mountain basin, characteristically free of trees and tailor-made for great swooping turns or steep, speedy dives.
Slang term for a helmet.
Also referred to as Moguls. See (Moguls).
An easy and flat area for beginner’s. This area is almost always found near the base area as this is the first lesson stop for a beginning skier.
Also referred to as a Tram. See (Tram)
The upward curvature in the base of a ski or snowboard. Used to distribute weight of a rider across skis or a snowboard, as well as to provide proper tension for improved response. Determined by the amount of space beneath the center of a ski when it lays on a flat surface with its weight resting on the tip and tail.
The lateral angle of the boot in relation to the ski or snowboard. Starting from a vertical axis, your feet can be canted inwards or outwards to improve edge control.
A manufacturing technique where the top sheet comes all the way down to the metal edges on the sides of a ski or snowboard; making it part of the overall structure.
Skis best suited for responsive turning.
A series of clean turns using the edges of skis or a snowboard. Carving turns can vary from tight turns to giant “S” shaped swoops.
Narrower skis designed for tight, clean turns.
Using a Snowcat to reach and then ski areas that are not accessible by chairlifts.
Relatively flat paths used by Snowcats to move around a mountain. These are often used by skiers and snowboarders as well to reach different areas within a resort.
The vibration of skis or snowboards caused by traveling at high speeds. Excessive chatter reduces contact between the ski and the snow and the ability to stay in total control.
A steep and narrow gully, surrounded by rocks most often. Almost certainly an expert-only run, whether it’s marked or not.
A deep, steep-walled mountain basin or amphitheater carved out of the mountain by an alpine glacier. Similar to a bowl but generally steeper.
A common slang term for the grooves found on a recently groomed trail created by a Snowcat or grooming machine. Called as such for the obvious resemblance to corduroy fabric.
Springtime snow; the repeated melting and refreezing of the snow results in corn-sized icy snow crumbs.
An overhang of snow caused by constant wind; fun to launch from, but also dangerous as they can snap off at any time.
French for “corridor,” a couloir is similar to a chute, but typically steeper and more narrow; suitable for experts only.
A deep and often times hidden crack in a glacier or permafrost.
A superb workout and part of the Nordic Skiing family, cross-country-skiing uses narrow skis and bindings where the heel releases. Typically cross-country skiing is done on flat ground as opposed to riding a lift to access downhill skiing.
Refers to a frozen layer either covering softer snow or buried under a fresh dusting of snow.
Term used to describe a tool or technique that reduces the vibrations, also known as the chatter of skis or snowboard that occur at higher speeds.
The separation of a laminate along the plane of its layers. An typical case of delaminating that occurs with the molded layers on a ski and snowboard separating. This can ruin equipment if not repaired immediately.
The tension release setting that determines the amount of pressure required for a ski binding to release during a crash; stands for the German “Deutsche Industrie Normen.”
Slang term for a large snowfall of fresh powder.
The measurement used to determine the hardness of a plastic ski boot shell; the lower the durometer, the softer the shell.
The sharpened metal strip on the sides of skis and snowboards, used for gaining control by biting into the snow for smoother carving and cutting. Holding an edge is a key to a good turn.
The length of metal edges on the ski that is in actual contact with the snow. Today’s shaped skis have a longer effective edge, resulting in a more stable, easier turning ski.
The most direct line down a trail or slope; known as such as if you fall, that’s the direction you’ll slide.
Cutting through fresh snow before anyone else does, leaving behind your trail for all else to see.
French acronym (Fédération Internationale de Ski) for the International Ski Federation, the main international organization of ski sports.
Term used for ski boots to describe stiffness of the outer shell of the boot. This term can also used describe how much a ski or snowboard bends when pressure is applied; typically, the more expert a skier, the stiffer the ski.
The removable sole support inside a ski boot’s liner. Custom footbeds can (and should) be made to fit the sole of the foot as closely as possible.
Free heel skiing:
See (Telemark Skiing)
A style of skiing or snowboarding primarily focused on tricks.
Slang term for skiing with skis parallel to one another; the opposite of pizza.
Older snow that has frozen together.
A box for sliding found in Terrain Parks.
Similar to Slalom racing, but with the racing gates placed further apart to allow for faster speeds and wider turns. This discipline uses two pole gates rather than single pole gates.
A stand of trees.
Protective eyewear used not only to shade the sun and glare, but also to protect from wind, snow, and other potentially blinding objects.
An enclosed lift that fits, on average, between four to eight passengers; like a mini-cabin, and generally faster than an open chairlift.
Holding onto any part of your skis or snowboard while in the air; used to add both style to a trick and to maintain balance.
A term for snow that has been packed down creating countless tiny pellets of ice and worn out snow.
The easiest trails on a mountain, denoted on trail maps and signs by a green circle. Usually groomed, wide and flat, and skiers must remain slow. Note: European resorts may use blue as the color to indicate an easy trail.
The most common form of trail maintenance, done to spread new snow and to smooth over bumps, icy patches and other obstacles. To groom, tractors known as Snowcats drag giant rakes over the snow; on steeper slopes, winches are used to drag rakes up the incline.
A U-shaped channel with smooth walls used by freestyle skiers and snowboarders for aerial tricks. Typically a halfpipe is created by carving a channel out of massive piles of snow, but they can also be dug out of the ground in areas with minimal snowfall.
A catch-all term used to classify ski and snowboard equipment, including the skis, snowboards, boots and bindings.
A term for snow that has been densely packed due to repeated grooming or skiing and the lack of new fresh snowfall.
A steep to vertical cliff found at the end of a valley; often at the uppermost part of a Cirque.
Skiers are transferred by helicopter into the backcountry to ski off-trail through fresh tracks on virgin snow. While it is expensive and can be potentially dangerous, it is also exhilarating. Only experienced advanced skiers should take part in this type of skiing.
To climb uphill on skis, spreading them apart to keep from sliding backwards; called as such due to the geometric pattern left behind in the snow.
Slang term for launching off a jump.
Term used to describe ski terrain inside the boundaries of a ski resort.
Grabbing the toe edge of your snowboard between the bindings with your rear hand. This is the most basic grab. Similarly executed on skis by grabbing a ski’s outside edge.
A binding system provided with skis that are designed to work specifically with that ski. Quickly becoming the industry standard as they provide better flex by bending with the ski to increase control and the transfer of power.
A surface for riding a snowboard or skis across made from a surface other than snow. This could be a rail. Box or any other foreign object used to deflect or ride across.
A wedge shaped jump. Usually found in Terrain Parks.
A boot maker’s term for the interior shape of a ski boot.
A ski boot term used to describe a custom liner constructed around a mold of the actual foot size for a better and more comfortable fit.
Lateral Upper-cuff Adjustment:
An adjustment on some ski boots that allows the user to shift or modify the position of the upper boot.
A slang term for a ski lift operator.
The removable, soft inner boot designed to provide both support and padding against the hard outer shell of a ski boot.
A conveyor-belt like surface lift. Not common but typically found only on beginner runs or bunny hills.
A slang term for wet and heavy snow.
A layer of foam within a ski boot designed to mold to a skier’s foot over time.
An improved form of fleece, with a tighter, less dense knit that cuts down on size. A great material to use for a middle layer.
Another term for an All-Mountain type ski..
The first run early in the day.
Bumps carved into the snow; typically they are created by the turns of skiers, but they can also be carved out for perfectly shaped mogul field.
The standard European measurement for shoe sizes, commonly used for ski boots. It’s based on the length for which the shoe is suitable, measured in centimeters.
A type of ski with both boots attached to a single board. Monoskis became relatively popular in Europe, but never quite caught on in the United States. This term is also used to refer to the “sit-ski” used by handicapped skiers.
Grabbing the toe edge of your snowboard between the bindings with your front hand. Also executed on skis by grabbing a ski’s outside edge.
A worldwide program that allows ski or snowboard racers of all ages and abilities to compare themselves with one another through an intricate handicapping system. NASTAR is an acronym for National Standard Race.
A first time skier or snowboarder.
An area where falling will likely lead to serious injury; the initial entry into a steep chute is often described as a no-fall zone. Experts only
Most commonly used to refer to cross-country skiing, but in fact can be any form of skiing where the heel of the boot releases from the binding. Along with cross-country.
Out-of-bounds. Off a trail and other areas not marked on trail map. Expert Skiers only areas.
Off-piste. Ski terrain located outside the boundaries of a ski resort. Expert Skiers only areas.
Term used to describe relatively newer snow that has been groomed or ridden over repeatedly making it harder.
Also known as shaped skis. See (Shaped Skis).
Also know as Terrain Park. Se (Terrain Park).
Also known as halfpipe. See (Halfpipe)
The French word for “trail.”
Jacket zippers located under the armpits allowing the user to circulate air through jacket on warmer days.
Slang term for a beginner skiing technique where skis are tilted together in the shape of a slice of pizza. Also called a snowplow.
The handle on a ski pole.
Poles: These are held in both hands and are used to assist with turning. They can also assist in pushing on flat terrain or uslopes as well as assist in standing after a fall.
Fresh, dry and lightweight snow that for many is the Holy Grail of skiing and snowboarding. Large amounts of fresh powder make for epic skiing conditions.
Designed to float on top of the new powder. These skis are particularly popular in areas that receive frequent major storms. The extra-wide waist usually ranging from 105mm to 130mm help keep the skis from sinking in fresh snow. They usually do not perform as well in quick turns on groomed runs.
The Velcro strap at the top end of a ski boot used to make sure that the top of the boot gives a snug fit connecting to the calf and shin.
Slang term for a chair lift carrying four people.
A halfpipe divided in half lengthways and used for a single aerial trick.
Typically stiffer, may be longer, and narrower than the average ski.
Designed for racing, these boots are stiffer and often more narrow than the average boot.
A bar, typically metal, built to be slid up by skiers and snowboarders. These will mostly be found in Terrain Parks.
The downward arc formed in a ski or snowboard by applying pressure from above. The more pressure applied, the greater amount of reverse camber created, thus loading the skis or snowboard with more energy for turning. Some skis are designed with reverse camber, which is built-in to keep the tips floating above the snow.
A common surface lift, typically found running up beginner or bunny slopes. A constantly moving rope that pulls skiers up the slope as they stand on their skis or snowboard.
A flat expansive area at the end of run that allows racers to slow down, as well as a fairly flat run used to link tougher trails back to a ski lift.
Skiing straight downhill without turning.
Term used to describe the hourglass shape utilized by the majority of skis today. Wider in the tips and tails and narrower in the middle or waist. Shaped skis require less effort to turn as the shape itself helps initiate a curve.
The hard plastic outer portion of a ski boot.
The front end of a ski, which often bows out to a larger shovel shape to avoid sinking into snow.
The inner curvature of a ski or snowboard, measured by the difference between the narrowest point in the waist of a ski or snowboard to the widest points at the tip and tail. The curvature of a sidecut is a key component in creating the turning radius. The more drastic the sidecut, the sharper the ability to turn.
Slang term for a chair lift carrying six people.
Extremely short skis that are like a cross between skiing and inline skating. Also known as snowblades.
A required attachment for ski bindings designed to stop a ski from shooting downhill after being detached.
Trained skiers and snowboarders responsible for slope safety, including clearing areas of possible avalanche danger after a storm, marking dangerous obstacles on/near a trail, and assisting or even carting injured riders down a mountain.
Used to describe the area to the left of someone heading downhill.
Used to describe the area to the right of someone heading downhill.
Accommodation that can be reached from the ski area via skis or snowboard.
A version of skiing in which the skier is attached to a set of dogs or a horse by a waistband and then pulled across flat ground.
Synthetic or mohair strips of material that can be temporarily affixed to the bottom of skis for climbing up hills.
Accommodation from which it’s possible to ride from the door to the lifts.
An adjustment on some ski boots that allows the upper cuff to hinge backward, giving room for a more natural walking motion when skis are off.
A form of downhill skiing where racers head downhill on a course line with tightly spaced gates that must be passed between with short, quick turns..
A shorter version of the downhill ski. Less than 3 feet long with some versions only large enough to fit boot and bindings.
A tracked vehicle used for moving around snowy, mountainous areas; often seen dragging giant rakes as they groom runs, but may also be used to transport skiers into the back country for what is called Cat Skiing..
A beginner’s technique for slowing down on skis. Done by bringing the front tips of a pair of skis together, pushing the tails apart, and applying pressure on the skis’ inside edges. You will also hear this being called the Pizza due to the V-shape of the stance..
Similar to a skateboard deck without wheels, designed to be ridden on snow for freestyle tricks.
Catch-all term used to classify ski and snowboard clothing, including jackets, gloves, long underwear, and hats.
The fastest discipline in Alpine racing. Similar to Slalom and Giant Slalom but with even fewer turns to negotiate allowing higher speeds.
A larger version of a regular halfpipe. The walls in a superpipe can measure up to 20ft.
Lifts that drag, yank, or pull skiers up a slope along the ground as opposed to traveling above the snow or terrain in the air. These would include rope tows, T-bars and Magic Carpet lifts.
The back end of a ski.
A lift that pulls you up hill by grabbing onto and then sitting on a T-shaped arm suspended from a moving line. Often found on small and flat beginner slopes, but they can also be found high up a mountain in steep areas where a chairlift can’t or hasn’t been built.
Part of the Nordic Skiing family and is a hybrid of both downhill and cross country skiing. Skiing with movable detached heels allows for traversing across flat ground but telemark skis are also wide enough to handle high speeds and sharp turns. Known for its distinctive forward bent knee “telemark” turn. Sometimes called “free heel skiing.”
A freestyle zone roped off from other downhill runs and filled with jumps, rails, boxes and other assorted obstacles. Parks may also include a halfpipe as well as jumps.
Slang term for a slope of once fresh snow that has been ridden over repeatedly.
The largest aerial lift; the bus-size cabins can hold upwards of 100 passengers, and are most often used to cover long vertical distances.
The section of a halfpipe linking the vertical walls to the flat floor;This is also knwon as trannies.
Skiing across a slope, often in a zigzag pattern, as opposed to straight down; typically done to keep speeds down on steep surface or to cut across a mountain.
The altitude at which trees stop growing on a mountain. In the U.S., the tree line floats between 8,000 and 10,000 ft, while in Europe it tends to be lower; closer to 7,000 ft.
A dangerous hollow space formed around the base of trees after heavy snowfalls; fatal accidents can occur by falling into one.
The turning radius equals the natural circle that a pair of skis or a snowboard can make.. The more dramatic the sidecut, the tighter the turning radius. Length of the ski will also be a factor in the radius. The longer the ski the longer the radius.
Skis where both the tail and tip are turned up at the end, enabling a skier to ski both forward and backwards with ease. Originally popular with freestyle skiers because the twin tip shape allows for reverse (known as fakie or switch) take-offs and landings off jumps. Modern advancements, however, have seen twin tip shapes appear more often in big mountain skis, as they shape handles smoothly in powder and is a good design as an all-mountain ski.
- There are no ski terms in our glossary that begin with the letter U at this time.
The distance between the base or bottom of a mountain and its tallest point.
Measurement taken of the narrowest portion across a ski or snowboard, usually the middle of the ski.
Product used on the base or underside of skis and snowboards to keep them gliding smoothly over variable snow conditions. Should be reapplied occasionally depending on use and snow conditions. Althuogh there are self apply products it’s usually best to let a ski/board shop apply the proper wax for best results.
A type of cross-country ski designed with a crosshatch or fish-scale pattern on the base or underside of the ski that reduces or eliminate the need for waxing.
Also known as a Snow Plow turn. See: Snow Plow.
When visibility drops to almost nothing; caused by heavy snowfall, fog, or a combination of both.
A term used to describe snow that has been compressed by the movement of the wind.
When resort lifts stop running due to dangerously high winds.
- There are no ski terms in our glossary that begin with the letter X at this time.
A crash in which a skier’s or snowboarder’s gear – skis, poles, hats, gloves, etc – end up scattered around the slope.
- There are no ski terms in our glossary that begin with the letter Z at this time.